The objectives of OD are: In other words, these programs[ which? But broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following objectives: Organizational development helps in making employees align with the vision of the organization encouraging employees to solve problems instead of avoiding them strengthening inter-personal trust, cooperation, and communication for the successful achievement of organizational goals encouraging every individual to participate in the process of planning, thus making them feel responsible for the implementation of the plan creating a work atmosphere in which employees are encouraged[ by whom?
Life timeline and Nature timeline Late Upper Paleolithic Model or "Revolution"[ edit ] The Late Upper Paleolithic Model, or Upper Paleolithic Revolution, refers to the idea that, though anatomically modern humans first appear aroundyears ago, they were not cognitively or behaviorally "modern" until around 50, years ago, leading to their expansion into Europe and Asia.
Klein specifically describes evidence of fishing, bone shaped as a tool, hearths, significant artifact diversity, and elaborate graves are all absent before this point.
Brooksprimarily working in African archaeology, point to the gradual accumulation of "modern" behaviors, starting well before the 50, year benchmark of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution models.
Some authors have pushed back the appearance of fully modern behavior to around 80, years ago in order to incorporate the South African data. These researchers   describe how anatomically modern humans could have been cognitively the same and what we define as behavioral modernity is just the result of thousands of years of cultural adaptation and learning.
D'Errico and others have looked at Neanderthal culture rather than early human behavior for clues into behavioral modernity. They argue that the original "human revolution" theory reflects a profound Eurocentric bias.
Recent archaeological evidence, they argue, proves that humans evolving in Africa someor evenyears ago were already becoming cognitively and Behavioral science organization development and change "modern".
These features include blade and microlithic technology, bone tools, increased geographic range, specialized hunting, the use of aquatic resources, long distance trade, systematic processing and use of pigment, and art and decoration.
These items do not occur suddenly together as predicted by the "human revolution" model, but at sites that are widely separated in space and time.
This suggests a gradual assembling of the package of modern human behaviours in Africa, and its later export to other regions of the Old World. Between these extremes is the view — currently supported by archaeologists Chris Henshilwood,  Curtis Marean,  Ian Watts  and others — that there was indeed some kind of 'human revolution' but that it occurred in Africa and spanned tens of thousands of years.
|Behavioral Science Degree Online | Behavioral Science | Bellevue University||The term also refers to subsequent developments in planned organizational change and broader labels such as change management since the midth century.|
The term "revolution" in this context would mean not a sudden mutation but a historical development along the lines of "the industrial revolution" or "the Neolithic revolution". These archaeologists point in particular to the relatively explosive emergence of ochre crayons and shell necklaces apparently used for cosmetic purposes.
These archaeologists see symbolic organisation of human social life as the key transition in modern human evolution. Recently discovered at sites such as Blombos Cave and Pinnacle Point, South Africa, pierced shells, pigments and other striking signs of personal ornamentation have been dated within a time-window of 70,—, years ago in the African Middle Stone Age, suggesting that the emergence of Homo sapiens coincided, after all, with the transition to modern cognition and behaviour.
Cultural evolutionary models may also shed light on why although evidence of behavioral modernity exists before 50, years ago it is not expressed consistently until that point. With small population sizes, human groups would have been affected by demographic and cultural evolutionary forces that may not have allowed for complex cultural traits.
It is worth noting that some genetic evidence supports a dramatic increase in population size before human migration out of Africa. This is based on a literary analysis of Bronze Age texts which claims to show the first appearances of the concept of self around this time, replacing the voices of gods as the primary form of recorded human cognition.
This non-mainstream theory is not widely accepted but does receive serious academic interest from time to time. Africa[ edit ] Before the Out of Africa theory was generally accepted, there was no consensus on where the human species evolved and, consequently, where modern human behavior arose.
Now, however, African archaeology has become extremely important in discovering the origins of humanity. Since human expansion into Europe around 48, years ago is generally accepted as already "modern",  the question becomes whether behavioral modernity appeared in Africa well before 50, years ago, as a late Upper Paleolithic "revolution" which prompted migration out of Africa, or arose outside Africa and diffused back.
A variety of evidence of abstract imagery, widened subsistence strategies, and other "modern" behaviors have been discovered in Africa, especially South and North Africa.
The Blombos Cave site in South Africa, for example, is famous for rectangular slabs of ochre engraved with geometric designs. Using multiple dating techniques, the site was confirmed to be around 77, years old. A number of South African sites have shown an early reliance on aquatic resources from fish to shellfish.
Pinnacle Pointin particular, shows exploitation of marine resources as early asyears ago, perhaps in response to more arid conditions inland. Blombos Cave and Site in Sudan both show evidence of fishing as well.
Taphonomic change in fish skeletons from Blombos Cave have been interpreted as capture of live fish, clearly an intentional human behavior. A variety of stone tool technologies are present at the time of human expansion into Europe and show evidence of modern behavior.
Despite the problems of conflating specific tools with cultural groups, the Aurignacian tool complex, for example, is generally taken as a purely modern human signature. In light of a growing body of evidence of Neanderthal culture and tool complexes some researchers have put forth a "multiple species model" for behavioral modernity.
Personal ornaments were relegated as trinkets or poor imitations compared to the cave art produced by H. Despite this, European evidence has shown a variety of personal ornaments and artistic artifacts produced by Neanderthals; for example, the Neanderthal site of Grotte du Renne has produced grooved bear, wolf, and fox incisors, ochre and other symbolic artifacts.
If they just copied cultural traditions, which is debated by several authors,   they still possessed the capacity for complex culture described by behavioral modernity. As discussed above, if Neanderthals also were "behaviorally modern" then it cannot be a species-specific derived trait.
Asia[ edit ] Most debates surrounding behavioral modernity have been focused on Africa or Europe but an increasing amount of focus has been placed on East Asia. This region offers a unique opportunity to test hypotheses of multi-regionalism, replacement, and demographic effects.
Stone tool technology is particularly of interest in East Asia.The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the project portfolio management in different business organizations.
Project portfolio management is seen as a holistic activity, dependent on the organization's strategy. Apr 04, · Organization Development. Organization Development (OD)is a process by which behavioral science knowledge and practices are used to help organizations achieve greater effectiveness, including improved quality of work life and increased productivity (Cummings, & .
Aging Behavior & Cognitive Therapy SIG. The purpose of the Aging Behavior and Cognitive Therapy SIG is to promote communication and collaboration among health professionals interested in aging issues, particularly within behavioral and cognitive-behavioral frameworks, across both .
The World Bank Group works in every major area of development. We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face.
Organization development and change (ODC) is a term used to refer to organization development (OD) as it emerged in the s and s as a discrete area of inquiry. The term also refers to subsequent developments in planned organizational change and broader labels (such as change management) since.
Interest in leadership development is strong, especially among practitioners. Nonetheless, there is conceptual confusion regarding distinctions between leader and leadership development, as well as disconnection between the practice of leadership development and its scientific foundation.