Hire Writer With Birds Eye using all their resources and capabilities it allowed them to control and manage their entire supply chain. This allowed Birds Eye to maintain total control of the quality of their product. With Birds Eye becoming a vertically integrated producer it allowed new entrants in this market extremely difficult due to the needs of high capital investments. Why did specialized intermediaries emerge?
Embryological study of the skull reveals dinosaur-bird connection November 20,Universidad de Chile Birds evolved from dinosaurs, radically transforming their skull as it became toothless and the brain grew bigger. The large dinosaur with a dark outline in the image is Erlikosaurus; below, the modern seabird Sula.
During evolution, birds lost two of the skull bones once present in dinosaurs: The prefrontal, and the postorbital. However, during the embryonic development of birds, starting points for the formation of these bones are still present. The dark circles above illustrate the appearance of these embryonic bones under the microscope, as revealed by a purple stain that is bone-specific alizarin red.
The embryonic prefrontal and postorbital later fuse to other embryonic bones, becoming undetectable in the adult.
However, since the likes of Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, some parts of their anatomy have become radically transformed. The skull, for instance, is now toothless, and accommodates much larger eyes and brain.
Skulls are like 3-D puzzles made of smaller bones: As the eye socket and brain case expanded along evolution, birds lost two bones of the skull that were once present in dinosaurs -the prefrontal, at the upper front corner of the eye, and the postorbital, behind the eye See the skull of Erlikosaurus compared to the seabird Sula in the image below.
Or rather, this seemed to be the case. Rather than becoming independent bones of the adult skull as in ancient predatory dinosaursthey fuse quickly to other embryonic bones, becoming undetectable in the adult bird.
The study is the master's thesis of evolutionary biologist Daniel Smith. During the evolution of toothed, dinosar-like birds in the Cretaceous period, the disappearance of the adult postorbital coincided with an increase in size of the brain, as well as the frontal bone above the brain.
The new study shows how the embryonic postorbital of birds fuses to the frontal, becoming part of that bone. By adding itself to the frontal, the postorbital could have allowed it to expand and accommodate a larger brain in evolution.
This discovery has also unraveled a long-standing mystery of embryology: In most animals, the frontal bone is formed from cells coming from the outer layer of the early embryo, called the ectoderm.
Birds are very unusual because their frontal bone develops from two sources of embryonic cells: The front portion is formed from the ectoderm, but the back portion is formed from an inner layer of the embryo, called the mesoderm.
The reason for this was enigmatic, but some scientists had suggested that the back portion of the frontal was different because it evolved from a different bone, that became assimilated into the frontal.
The new study has confirmed this hypothesis, by showing that the back portion of the frontal actually starts out as a separate embryonic bone, the same that once developed into the postorbital of dinosaurs see the image of duck embryos below.
These images of duck embryos show how the postorbital is at a first a separate embryonic bone abovethe same that in dinosaurs became a separate bone of the adult skull. At a later stage, the embryonic postorbital fuses to the frontal, becoming part of this bone below.
Therefore, evolution has worked in a graceful, elegant way —by subtly removing seams and fusing existing building blocks —to build something remarkably divergent and unique. The new study provides further evidence for the "inner dinosaur" of birds, in the sense that much of their embryology is still the same as in their ancient ancestors.With Birds Eye using all their resources and capabilities it allowed them to control and manage their entire supply chain.
-Also, since Birds Eye product was knows as a premium due to the fact of the overhead it cost to freeze the product at its highest quality usually within hours to maintain high quality.
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Birds Eye was estabilished in August in United Kingdom and it was the initiative of Robert Ducas, the chairman of Kent engineering company, winget Ltd Key Issues in case: 1.
Vertical integration 2. The Case In Birds Eye was losing market share in an industry they once dominated. Over previous decades they had established themselves as the leading player in the UK frozen food industry.5/5(2). The Check-List of North American Birds has since seen a number of subsequent editions; currently it’s on its seventh edition, fifty-fourth supplemental.
It lays out, in plain English, the rules under which all ornithologists must labor when writing about their avian study objects.