Effects Psychological effects Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life. The associations are expressed as odds ratios: Dissociation psychology and Posttraumatic stress disorder Child abuseincluding sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.
Effects Psychological effects Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life.
The associations are expressed as odds ratios: Dissociation psychology and Posttraumatic stress disorder Child abuseincluding sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high levels of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.
Their examination of a small sample of CSA-discordant twins also supported a causal link between child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology; the CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins.
In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death. Vaginitis has also been reported. Male and female victims were similarly affected. Because the abused subjects' verbal SAT scores were high, they hypothesized that the low math SAT scores could "stem from a defect in hemispheric integration.
Incest Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult is known as child incestuous abuse,  and has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity to damage the young person. Commercial sexual exploitation of children Commercial sexual exploitation of children CSEC is defined by the Declaration of the First World Congress against Commercial Definition and results of child sexual abuse Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm inas "sexual abuse by an adult accompanied by remuneration in cash or in kind to the child or third person s.
CSEC is particularly a problem in developing countries of Asia. Children who received supportive responses following disclosure had less traumatic symptoms and were abused for a shorter period of time than children who did not receive support.
Therefore, the parental caregiver teaches the child to mask his or her issues. A private environment away from suspected abusers is desired for interviewing and examining. Leading statements that can distort the story are avoided.
As disclosing abuse can be distressing and sometimes even shameful, reassuring the child that he or she has done the right thing by telling and that they are not bad and that the abuse was not their fault helps in disclosing more information.
Anatomically correct dolls are sometimes used to help explain what happened, although some researchers consider the dolls too explicit and overstimulating, which might contribute to non-abused children behaving with the dolls in one or more ways that suggest they were sexually abused.
Age at the time of presentation Circumstances of presentation for treatment Co-morbid conditions The goal of treatment is not only to treat current mental health issues, and trauma related symptoms, but also to prevent future ones.
Children and adolescents Children often present for treatment in one of several circumstances, including criminal investigations, custody battles, problematic behaviors, and referrals from child welfare agencies.
Which course is used depends on a variety of factors that must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. For instance, treatment of young children generally requires strong parental involvement and can benefit from family therapy.
Adolescents tend to be more independent; they can benefit from individual or group therapy. Summit, a medical doctor, defined the different stages the victims of child sexual abuse go through, called child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.
He suggested that children who are victims of sexual abuse display a range of symptoms that include secrecy, helplessness, entrapment, accommodation, delayed and conflicted disclosure and recantation. For instance, a person with a history of sexual abuse suffering from severe depression would be treated for depression.
However, there is often an emphasis on cognitive restructuring due to the deep-seated nature of the trauma. Some newer techniques such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR have been shown to be effective.
When first presenting for treatment, the patient can be fully aware of their abuse as an event, but their appraisal of it is often distorted, such as believing that the event was unremarkable a form of isolation.
Frequently, victims do not make the connection between their abuse and their present pathology. Prevention Child sexual abuse prevention programmes were developed in the United States of America during the s and originally delivered to children.
Programmes delivered to parents were developed in the s and took the form of one-off meetings, two to three hours long.
Offenders Demographics Offenders are more likely to be relatives or acquaintances of their victim than strangers. Groth and Birnbaum categorized child sexual offenders into two groups, "fixated" and "regressed".
This study also showed that adult sexual orientation was not related to the sex of the victim targeted, e. They are divided as follows: Regressed — Typically has relationships with adults, but a stressor causes them to seek children as a substitute.
Morally Indiscriminate — All-around sexual deviant, who may commit other sexual offenses unrelated to children. Preferential — has true sexual interest in children. Mysoped — Sadistic and violent, target strangers more often than acquaintances.
Fixated — Little or no activity with own age, described as an "overgrown child". Causal factors Causal factors of child sex offenders are not known conclusively.
The US Government Accountability Office concluded, "the existence of a cycle of sexual abuse was not established. Even the majority of studies found that most adult sex offenders said they had not been sexually abused during childhood, but studies varied in terms of their estimates of the percentage of such offenders who had been abused, from 0 to 79 percent.
More recent prospective longitudinal research—studying children with documented cases of sexual abuse over time to determine what percentage become adult offenders—has demonstrated that the cycle of violence theory is not an adequate explanation for why people molest children.A child who is the victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or distorted view of sex.
The child may become withdrawn and mistrustful of adults, and can become suicidal (page 1). Notably, the legal definition of sexually explicit conduct does not require that an image depict a child engaging in sexual activity.
A picture of a naked child may constitute illegal child pornography if it is sufficiently sexually suggestive.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Child abuse can be categorised into four different types: neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse and sexual abuse.
A child may be subjected to one or more forms of abuse at any given time. Abuse and neglect can occur within the family, in the community or in an institutional setting. DEFINITIONS OF ABUSE AND NEGLECT. Statutory and regulatory definition Types of sexual abuse committed the abuse and/or neglect of a child pursuant to Chapter 15 (§ et seq.) of Title of the Code of Virginia.
Oct 16, · Sexual abuse is unwanted sexual activity, with perpetrators using force, making threats or taking advantage of victims not able to give consent. Most victims and perpetrators know each other. Immediate reactions to sexual abuse include shock, fear or .