Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement. Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.
Military security In practice, national security is associated primarily with managing physical threats and with the military capabilities used for doing so. Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden,   configure their military forces mainly for territorial defence; others, such as France, Russia, the UK and the US,     invest in higher-cost expeditionary capabilitieswhich allow their armed forces to project power and sustain military operations abroad.
Economic security Economic security, in the context of international relationsis the ability of a nation state to maintain and develop the national economy, without which other dimensions of national security cannot be managed.
In larger countries, strategies for economic security expect to access resources and markets in other countries, and to protect their own markets at home.
Developing countries may be less secure than economically advanced states due to high rates of unemployment and underpaid work.
Environmental security Ecological security, also known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphereparticularly in relation to their capacity to sustain a diversity of life-forms including human life. The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown.
The scope and nature of environmental threats to national security and strategies to engage them are a subject of debate. These include global environmental problems such as climate change due to global warmingdeforestationand loss of biodiversity.
These include resource scarcities leading to local conflict, such as disputes over water scarcity in the Middle East ; migration into the United States caused by the failure of agriculture in Mexico ; : These include acts of war that degrade or destroy ecosystems. Energy security Resources include water, sources of energy, land and minerals.
Availability of adequate natural resources is important for a nation to develop its industry and economic power. For example, in the Persian Gulf War ofIraq captured Kuwait partly in order to secure access to its oil wells, and one reason for the US counter-invasion was the value of the same wells to its own economy.
The interrelations between security, energy, natural resources, and their sustainability is increasingly acknowledged in national security strategies and resource security is now included among the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
Computer security Computer securityalso known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as computers and smartphones, as well as computer networks such as private and public networks, and the Internet.
It concerns the protection of hardware, software, data, people, and also the procedures by which systems are accessed, and the field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies. Infrastructure security seeks to limit vulnerability of these structures and systems to sabotageterrorismand contamination.
There are also commercial transportation security units such as the Amtrak Police in the United States. Critical infrastructure is vital for the essential functioning of a country.
Incidental or deliberate damage can have a serious impact on the economy and essential services. Some of the threats to infrastructure include: In the November Mumbai attacksthe Mumbai central station and hospital were deliberately targeted, for example.
Cyberattacks on Estonia and cyberattacks during the South Ossetia war are examples.Trumped Up: How Criminalization of Political Differences Endangers Democracy [Alan Dershowitz] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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To understand fully any country's political system, one needs to understand something of its history. This is especially true of the United Kingdom because its history has been very different from most other nations and, as a result, its political system is very different from most other nations too.
The political, economic, and legal systems of a country.
Political Risk The likelihood that political forces will cause drastic changes in a country's business environment that will adversely affect the profit and other goals of a business enterprise.
A political party is an organized group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests.
Chapter Two National Differences in Political Economy Political Economy: Political Economy A term that stresses that the political, economic, and legal systems of a country are interdependent; they interact and influence each other, and in doing so they affect the level of economic well-being.
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