They say it is no accident that the rise in obesity in the U.
Abstract In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight.
Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other Obesity nutrition and larger soft drink and with an increased risk of several medical problems e. Study design significantly influenced results: Several other factors also moderated effect sizes e.
Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non—industry-funded studies.
Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science. Soft drink consumption has become a highly visible and controversial public health and public policy issue. Soft drinks are viewed by many as a major contributor to obesity and related health problems and have consequently been targeted as a means to help curtail the rising prevalence of obesity, particularly among children.
Soft drinks have been banned from schools in Britain and France, and in the United States, school systems as large as those in Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and Miami have banned or severely limited soft drink sales.
Many US states have considered statewide bans or limits on soft drink sales in schools, with California passing such legislation in A key question is whether actions taken to decrease soft drink consumption are warranted given the available science and whether decreasing population consumption of soft drinks would benefit public health.
The issue is not new. In the American Medical Association mentioned soft drinks specifically in a strong recommendation to limit intake of added sugar.
Similar positions have been taken by other trade associations such as the British Soft Drinks Association and the Australian Beverages Council. Legislative and legal discussions focusing on soft drink sales often take place on political and philosophical grounds with scant attention to existing science.
Our objectives were to review the available science, examine studies that involved the use of a variety of methods, and address whether soft drink consumption is associated with increased energy intake, increased body weight, displacement of nutrients, and increased risk of chronic diseases.
METHODS We focused on research investigating the effects of sugar-sweetened beverages; diet and artificially sweetened beverages are noted only in certain cases for comparison purposes. Finally, we contacted the authors of each included article with a request for unpublished or in-press work, and we asked each author to forward our request to other researchers who might have relevant work.
Our searches yielded a total of 88 articles that were included in the present analysis. There is a great deal of variability in research methods in this literature. Studies vary in their design i. Because such heterogeneity of research methods is likely to produce heterogeneity of effect sizes across studies an effect size represents the magnitude of the relationship between 2 variableswe took 2 steps to assess the impact of research method on outcome.
Initially, for each primary outcome energy intake, body weight, milk intake, and calcium intakewe assessed the degree of heterogeneity of effect sizes by testing the significance of the Q statistic, which is the sum of the squared deviations of each effect size from the overall weighted mean effect size.Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | Lenny R.
Vartanian, PhD, Marlene B.
Schwartz, PhD, and Kelly D. Brownell, PhD. been a major contributor to the obesity epidemic.4 A typical ounce soda contains 15 to soft-drink makers introduced larger sizes, including the ounce can, which became widely available in et al. Sugary Drink FACTS: Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth.
New Haven, CT: Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Soda Linked to Obesity and Diabetes Print A large systematic review reveals clear associations between consumption of non-diet soft drinks and increased calorie intake and body weight.
Apr 01, · Soft Drink Sweetener Blamed for Obesity. being blamed for America's obesity epidemic, but that extra-large soda you drink to today because soft drinks and food .
Soft drinks, sweetened teas, fruit drinks and most sports and "energy" drinks are loaded with calories and sometimes caffeine.
Coffee drinks often are surprisingly high in calories, fat and sugar. Alcoholic drinks are packed with empty calories. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been suggested as a contributory factor to the rising levels of childhood obesity being recorded in many countries worldwide.
Recent systematic reviews of the literature confirm the link between consumption of free sugars, particularly in the form of.