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This finding is based on data of moderate quality. There was, however, no clear difference between the groups and these findings are based on data of moderate quality.
A meta-analysis found that cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis, and that a dose-response relationship exists between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis.
The analysis was not able to establish a causal link. Susceptibility is most often found in users with at least one copy of the polymorphic COMT gene. CBD may show antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties, acting as an antagonist to some of the effects of THC.
Studies examining this effect have used high ratios of CBD to THC, and it is unclear to what extent these laboratory studies translate to the types of cannabis used by real life users.
Large-scale longitudinal studies in the UK and New Zealand from and showed an association between cannabis use and an increased probability of later disorders in the use of other drugs.
The authors cautioned that "evidence is needed, and further research should be considered, to prove causal associations of marijuana with many physical health conditions".
Variations in the methodologies used lend some uncertainty to this conclusion. These effects may vary depending on the relative concentration of the many different cannabinoids that can affect the cardiovascular function, such as cannabigerol. Smoking cannabis decreases exercise tolerance.
Cannabis use by people with cardiovascular disease poses a health risk because it can lead to increased cardiac work, increased catecholamine levels, and impaired blood oxygen carrying capacity due to the production of carboxyhemoglobin.
Cannabinoids are not mutagenic according to the Ames test.
However, cannabis smoke has been found to be carcinogenic in rodents and mutagenic in the Ames test. Correlating cannabis use with the development of human cancers has been problematic due to difficulties in quantifying cannabis use, unmeasured confoundersand that cannabinoids may have anti-cancer effects.
Nor did they find an increased risk in cannabis smokers who did not use tobacco. They concluded that "[o]ur pooled results showed no significant association between the intensity, duration, or cumulative consumption of cannabis smoke and the risk of lung cancer overall or in never smokers.
They said there was an increased risk from each cannabis cigarette due to drawing in large puffs of smoke and holding them. Isoprenes help to modulate and slow down reaction rates, contributing to the significantly differing qualities of partial combustion products from various sources.
In a few case reports involving immunocompromised patients, pulmonary infections such as aspergillosis have been attributed to smoking cannabis contaminated with fungi.
Cannabis in pregnancy A study released by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine cited significant evidence for a statistical link between mothers who smoke cannabis during pregnancy and lower birth weights of their babies. Motor vehicle accidents, suicide, and possible respiratory and brain cancers are all of interest to many researchers, but no studies have been able to show a consistent increase in mortality from these causes.The causes of schizophrenia have been the subject of much debate, with various factors proposed and discounted or modified..
The language of schizophrenia research under the medical model is scientific.
Such studies suggest that genetics, prenatal development, early environment, neurobiology, and psychological and social processes are important contributory factors.
Jan 26, · Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as deltatetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa).
Marijuana, as smoked in cigarettes, has many names both formal—cannabis, cannabis, hashish, hemp, sinsemilla—and informal—pot, dope, gra. Dec 07, · Marijuana is a controversial topic in the medical community, with some well-respected doctors advocating for its use and others concerned about its addictive properties and long term effects.
Aug 30, · Whether you are looking for a clinical trial to take part in, information about how trials are planned or for trial results you can find it here. The most important finding in this study is that cannabis use is related to greater odds of both new-onset opioid use and opioid use disorder 3 years later, even when adjusting for many potential factors that could explain this relationship.
Similar to other addictive drugs, fewer females than males use marijuana. 13 For females who do use marijuana, however, the effects can be different than for male users. Research indicates that marijuana impairs spatial memory in women more than it does in men, 22,23 while males show a greater marijuana-induced high.
24,25 In one study specific to teenagers, male high school students who smoke.